To Analyze Thinking We Must Identify and Question its Elemental Structures
Standard: ClarityCould you elaborate further? Could you give me an example? Could you illustrate what you mean?
understandable, the meaning can be grasped
Standard: AccuracyHow could we check on that? How could we find out if that is true? How could we verify or test that?
free from errors or distortions, true
Standard: PrecisionCould you be more specific? Could you give me more details? Could you be more exact?
exact to the necessary level of detail
Standard: RelevanceHow does that relate to the problem? How does that bear on the question? How does that help us with the issue?
relating to the matter at hand
Standard: DepthWhat factors make this a difficult problem? What are some of the complexities of this question? What are some of the difficulties we need to deal with?
containing complexities and multiple interrelationships
Standard: BreadthDo we need to look at this from another perspective? Do we need to consider another point of view? Do we need to look at this in other ways?
encompassing multiple viewpoints
Standard: LogicDoes all this make sense together? Does your first paragraph fit in with your last? Does what you say follow from the evidence?
the parts make sense together, no contradictions
Standard: SignificanceIs this the most important problem to consider? Is this the central idea to focus on? Which of these facts are most important?
focusing on the important, not trivial
Standard: FairnessDo I have any vested interest in this issue? Am I sympathetically representing the viewpoints of others?
Justifiable, not self-serving or one-sided
There are numerous other standards that may be applied to elements on a contextual basis. Here are just a few:
Completeness, Validity, Rationality, Sufficiency, Necessity, Feasabilty, Consistency, Authenticity, Effectiveness, Efficiency
Can you identify others standards relevant to your situation?
Why the Analysis of Thinking is Important
Everyone thinks; it is our nature to do so. But much of our thinking, left to itself, is biased, distorted, partial, uninformed, or downright prejudiced. If we want to think well, we must understand at least the rudiments of thought, the most basic structures out of which all thinking is made. We must learn how to take thinking apart.
All Thinking Is Defined by the Eight Elements That Make It Up. Eight basic structures are present in all thinking: Whenever we think, we think for a purpose within a point of view based on assumptions leading to implications and consequences. We use concepts, ideas and theories to interpret data, facts, and experiences in order to answer questions, solve problems, and resolve issues.Thinking, then:
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- generates purposes
- raises questions
- uses information
- utilizes concepts
- makes inferences
- makes assumptions
- generates implications
- embodies a point of view
Element: Purpose All reasoning has a PURPOSE.Take time to state your purpose clearly.Distinguish your purpose from related purposes.Check periodically to be sure you are still on target.Choose significant and realistic purposes.
Element: Question All reasoning is an attempt to figure something out, to settle some QUESTION, to solve some problem. State the question at issue clearly and precisely. Express the question in several ways to clarify its meaning. Break the question into sub-questions. Distinguish questions that have definitive answers from those that are a matter of opinion or that require multiple viewpoints.
Element: Information All reasoning is based on DATA, INFORMATION and EVIDENCE. Restrict your claims to those supported by the data you have. Search for information that opposes your position as well as information that supports it. Make sure that all information used is clear, accurate and relevant. Make sure you have gathered sufficient information.
Element: Interpretation and Inference All reasoning contains INFERENCES or INTERPRETATIONS by which we draw CONCLUSIONS and give meaning to data. Infer only what the evidence implies. Check inferences for their consistency with each other. Identify assumptions underlying your inferences.
Element: Concepts All reasoning is expressed through, and shaped by, CONCEPTS and IDEAS. Identify key concepts and explain them clearly. Consider alternative concepts or alternative definitions of concepts. Make sure you are using concepts with precision.
Element: Assumptions Clearly identify your assumptions and determine whether they are justifiable. Consider how your assumptions are shaping your point of view.
All reasoning is based on ASSUMPTIONS.
Element: Implications All reasoning leads somewhere or has IMPLICATIONS and CONSEQUENCES. Trace the implications and consequences that follow from your reasoning. Search for negative as well as positive implications. Consider all possible consequences.
Element: Point Of View All reasoning is done from some POINT OF VIEW. Identify your point of view. Seek other points of view and identify their strengths as well as weaknesses. Strive to be fairminded in evaluating all points of view.
Think About... PurposeYour purpose is your goal, your objective,
what you are trying to accomplish. We also use the term to include functions, motives, and intentions.
You should be clear about your purpose, and your purpose should be justifiable. Questions which target purpose What is your, my, their purpose in doing________? What is the objective of this assignment (task, job, experiment, policy, strategy, etc.)? Should we question, refine, modify our purpose (goal, objective, etc.)? What is the purpose of this meeting (chapter, relationship, action)? What is your central aim in this line of thought? What is the purpose of education? Why did you sayâ¦?
State the QuestionThe question lays out the problem or issue and
guides our thinking. When the question is vague, our thinking will lack clarity and distinctness.
The question should be clear and precise enough to productively guide our thinking. Questions which target the question What is the question I am trying to answer? What important questions are embedded in the issue? Is there a better way to put the question? Is this question clear? Is it complex? I am not sure exactly what question you are asking. Could you explain it? The question in my mind is this: How do you see the question? What kind of question is this? Historical? Scientific? Ethical? Political? Economic? Orâ¦? What would we have to do to settle this question?
Gather... InformationInformation includes the facts, data, evidence, or experiences we use to figure things out. It does not necessarily imply accuracy or correctness.
The information you use should be accurate and relevant to the question or issue you are addressing. Questions which target information What information do I need to answer this question? What data are relevant to this problem? Do we need to gather more information? Is this information relevant to our purpose or goal? On what information are you basing that comment? What experience convinced you of this? Could your experience be distorted? How do we know this information (data, testimony) is accurate? Have we left out any important information that we need to consider?
Watch Your... InferencesInferences are interpretations or conclusions you come to. Inferring is what the mind does in figuring something out.
Inferences should logically follow from the evidence. Infer no more or less than what is implied in the situation. Questions to check your inferences What conclusions am I coming to? Is my inference logical? Are there other conclusions I should consider? Does this interpretation make sense? Does our solution necessarily follow from our data? How did you reach that conclusion? What are you basing your reasoning on? Is there an alternative plausible conclusion? Given all the facts what is the best possible conclusion? How shall we interpret these data?
Clarify Your... ConceptsConcepts are ideas, theories, laws, principles, or hypotheses we use in thinking to make sense of things.
Be clear about the concepts you are using and use them justifiably. Questions you can ask about concepts What idea am I using in my thinking? Is this idea causing problems for me or for others? I think this is a good theory, but could you explain it more fully? What is the main hypothesis you are using in your reasoning? Are you using this term in keeping with established usage? What main distinctions should we draw in reasoning through this problem? What idea is this author using in his or her thinking? Is there a problem with it?
Check Your... AssumptionsAssumptions are beliefs you take for granted. They usually operate at the subconscious or unconscious level of thought.
Make sure that you are clear about your assumptions and they are justified by sound evidence. Questions you can ask about assumptions What am I assuming or taking for granted? Am I assuming something I shouldnât? What assumption is leading me to this conclusion? What isâ¦ (this policy, strategy, explanation) assuming? What exactly do sociologists (historians, mathematicians, etc.) take for granted? What is being presupposed in this theory? What are some important assumptions I make about my roommate, my friends, my parents, my instructors, my country?
Think Through the... Implications are claims or truths that logically follow from other claims or truths. Implications follow from thoughts. Consequences follow from actions.
Implications and Consequences
Implications are inherent in your thoughts, whether you see them or not. The best thinkers think through the logical implications in a situation before acting.Questions you can ask about implicationsIf I decide to do âXâ, what things might happen? If I decide not to do âXâ, what things might happen? What are you implying when you say that? What is likely to happen if we do this versus that? Are you implying thatâ¦? How significant are the implications of this decision? What, if anything, is implied by the fact that a much higher percentage of poor people are in jail than wealthy people?
Understand Your...Point of view is literally âthe placeâ from which you
Point of View
view something. It includes what you are looking at and the way you are seeing it.
Make sure you understand the limitations of your point of view and that you fully consider other relevant viewpoints.Questions to check your point of view How am I looking at this situation? Is there another way to look at it that I should consider? What exactly am I focused on? And how am I seeing it? Is my view the only reasonable view? What does my point of view ignore? Have you ever considered the way ____(Japanese, Muslims, South Americans, etc.) view this? Which of these possible viewpoints makes the most sense given the situation? Am I having difficulty looking at this situation from a viewpoint with which I disagree? What is the point of view of the author of this story? Do I study viewpoints that challenge my personal beliefs?