Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.
5 Review of National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Initiatives on Unintended Acceleration The statement of task for this study requests âan independent review of past and ongoing industry and NHTSA [National Highway Traffic Safety Administration] analyses to identify possible causes of unintended accel- eration.â As noted in Chapter 1, NHTSAâs Office of Defects Investigation (ODI) has investigated driver complaints of unintended acceleration for more than 40 years, and these complaints have encompassed a wide range of reported vehicle behaviors. Some complaints have involved moving vehicles that do not slow down as expected when pressure on the accelerator pedal is released. Others have involved vehicles that speed up abruptly with high engine power from a stopped position or while moving slowly. At other times the complainants describe fluctuations in engine idling, hesitation, shuddering during gear change, fluctuation of cruise control speeds around their set values, or delayed deceleration when brakes are applied on an uneven road surface. Degraded or failed braking is often asserted along with the unintended acceleration. Some complainants report having brought the vehicle to a dealer or other repair facility after the episode only to learn that no vehicle-related causes could be found or to receive an unsatisfactory explanation of possible causes.1 The committee is not charged with determining which of these vehicle behaviors constitute unintended acceleration or with examining alterna- tive theories of the causes of such behaviors. The charge is to review the The committee read the narratives of hundreds of complaints submitted to NHTSA and downloaded 1 from the agencyâs website to make these characterizations. 133
134 || The Safety Promise and Challenge of Automotive Electronics investigations conducted and supported by ODI on the basis of its defini- tion of unintended acceleration and its purposes in conducting the inves- tigations. ODI informed the committee that it investigates consumer complaints to determine whether the conditions and behaviors reported result from a vehicle-related deficiency that presents a public safety risk.2 The agencyâs investigations inform decisions about whether specific fol- low-up steps are warranted, such as influencing or ordering a manufac- turer safety recall, amending a Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS), or sponsoring research to identify vehicle- and human-related factors that may be causing or contributing to an evident safety defi- ciency. The emphasis of this chapter is on reviewing ODI investigations of unintended acceleration with regard to their use in informing such agency decisions. As a consequence, the chapter does not assess ODIâs investigations with regard to reasons unconnected to agency decision makingâfor example, whether the investigations are suited to explor- ing all conceivable means by which electronics systems could fail and lead to unsafe vehicle conditions or behaviors. The committee under- stands that ODIâs investigations are intended to identify defects that present a demonstrable safety hazard.3 For years, ODIâs Defects Assessment Division has sorted the com- plaints it receives on unintended acceleration according to certain signa- ture characteristics that it associates with driver pedal misapplication. By doing so, ODI believes that it can make more effective use of its investi- gative resources and better identify complaints involving unintended acceleration in which pedal misapplication was not the likely cause. The criteria that ODI uses for this sorting are derived from the report An Examination of Sudden Acceleration (Pollard and Sussman 1989), which was produced by the U.S. Department of Transportationâs (DOTâs) Trans- portation Systems Center (TSC). The committee was asked to review Title 49, United States Code, Chapter 301, Subchapter 1, Section 30101. To demonstrate the existence 2 of a safety defect, NHTSA needs to show that a defect exists and that it is safety-related. Accordingly, the agency must prove both that substantial numbers of failures attributable to the defect have occurred or are likely to occur and that the failures pose an unreasonable risk to safety. One could argue that NHTSA should examine electronics systems to assess any vulnerabilities that 3 could plausibly lead to unsafe behaviors in the field and then perhaps look for evidence of such behav- iors in the fleet. However, NHTSA does not view âprove outâ as part of its mission, and therefore ODIâs investigations are not designed for this purpose. As noted in Chapter 1, NHTSA describes the purpose of its initiatives on unintended acceleration as âintended to provide NHTSA with the information it needed to determine what additional steps may be necessary to identify the causes of unintended acceleration in Toyota vehicles and determine whether a previously unknown electronic defect may be present in those vehicles and warrant a defect investigationâ (NHTSA 2011, 12).
Acceleration by Graham McNamee Essay
1323 Words6 Pages
Acceleration by Graham McNamee
* Duncan, Vinny, and Wayne are all friends working - or wasting time - the summer before senior year in high school. Duncan is the soul, Vinny the brains, and Wayne the muscle. At the end of the previous summer, Duncan tried to save a drowning girl and failed. Not being a hero has really affected his life, particularly his relationship with his girlfriend Kim. Also, he is now terrified of swimming, especially when the nightmares come back. Duncan's summer job is with the public transit lost and found. While trying to make the hours go faster, Duncan looks through the items, especially the books and golf clubs. One day he discovers an unmarked journal with no name, which depicts sadistic animal torture…show more content…
At work he discovered some serial killer's diary who was slowly accelerating from smaller crimes to bigger crimes. He finds out that the serial killer has been stalking three women and is after to kill them. At first he didn't care what the serial killer wanted to do and so he decided to hand in the journal to the police, but seeing the disinterest that the cops showed him, he realized that he is playing with the life of someone and that the life of that victim is in hands, he decides to put a stop on it. He becomes responsible of his actions and understands the realities of the life. Also after working in lost and found department he became more mature and understood that the life is just not about having fun and do whatever you want, to get a good career a person have to work hard and follow the proper disciplines in the life.
3. How did author create suspense?
* The author creates suspense by starting with the slow beginning and then making the story faster and more attention-grabbing. The author cleverly manipulates readers sense of disbelief by eliminating the possibility of police help or parental understanding. The author reveals the serial killer to the reader at the end of the story. By that time Duncan keeps searching him. Author slowly reveals the clues out of the lost journal of serial killer to make readers focus in the story. Also with the slowly