MLA (Modern Language Association) style is most commonly used to write papers and cite sources within the liberal arts and humanities. This resource, updated to reflect the MLA Handbook (8th ed.), offers examples for the general format of MLA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the Works Cited page.
Contributors: Tony Russell, Allen Brizee, Elizabeth Angeli, Russell Keck, Joshua M. Paiz, Michelle Campbell, Rodrigo Rodríguez-Fuentes, Daniel P. Kenzie, Susan Wegener, Maryam Ghafoor, Purdue OWL Staff
Last Edited: 2017-06-19 09:55:05
This page provides an example of a Works Cited page in MLA 2016 format.
Dean, Cornelia. "Executive on a Mission: Saving the Planet." The New York Times, 22 May 2007, www.nytimes.com/2007/05/22/science/earth/22ander.html?_r=0. Accessed 12 May 2016.
Ebert, Roger. Review of An Inconvenient Truth, directed by Davis Guggenheim. rogerebert.com, 1 June 2006, www.rogerebert.com/reviews/an-inconvenient-truth-2006. Accessed 15 June 2016.
Gowdy, John. "Avoiding Self-organized Extinction: Toward a Co-evolutionary Economics of Sustainability." International Journal of Sustainable Development and World Ecology, vol. 14, no. 1, 2007, pp. 27-36.
An Inconvenient Truth. Directed by Davis Guggenheim, performances by Al Gore and Billy West, Paramount, 2006.
Leroux, Marcel. Global Warming: Myth Or Reality?: The Erring Ways of Climatology. Springer, 2005.
Milken, Michael, et al. "On Global Warming and Financial Imbalances." New Perspectives Quarterly, vol. 23, no. 4, 2006, p. 63.
Nordhaus, William D. "After Kyoto: Alternative Mechanisms to Control Global Warming." American Economic Review, vol. 96, no. 2, 2006, pp. 31-34.
---. "Global Warming Economics." Science, vol. 294, no. 5545, 9 Nov. 2001, pp. 1283-84, DOI: 10.1126/science.1065007.
Regas, Diane. “Three Key Energy Policies That Can Help Us Turn the Corner on Climate.” Environmental Defense Fund, 1 June 2016, www.edf.org/blog/2016/06/01/3-key-energy-policies-can-help-us-turn-corner-climate. Accessed 19 July 2016.
Revkin, Andrew C. “Clinton on Climate Change.” The New York Times, 17 May 2007, www.nytimes.com/video/world/americas/1194817109438/clinton-on-climate-change.html. Accessed 29 July 2016.
Shulte, Bret. "Putting a Price on Pollution." US News & World Report, vol. 142, no. 17, 14 May 2007, p. 37. Ebsco, Access no: 24984616.
Uzawa, Hirofumi. Economic Theory and Global Warming. Cambridge UP, 2003.
Citing Sources in the Text of your Paper: In-Text Citation and Notes
Each time writers use an outside source, they must give credit to the original writer or creator of that source. This strategy also allows a reader to easily and efficiently make note of the source's bibliographic entry. Just as each style guide has rules for creating a citation in a bibliography at the end of a text, each guide also has certain rules for citing the use of sources within the text of the essay.
The following are basic guidelines for citing sources in the text of your paper when using the MLA, APA, Chicago, ASA, or Turabian style guides. These guidelines may not account for every citation situation. Since citing sources is not a creative enterprise, you should consult the appropriate print version of the style guide when you have questions about citation.
MLA: Parenthetical In-Text Citations
MLA citation style requires that writers cite a source within the text of their essay at the end of the sentence in which the source is used. The parenthetical reference should be inserted after the last quotation mark but before the period at the end of the sentence.
General Form: (Author Last Name Page #)
Example: (Smith 42)
If two quotations from different sources are used in the same sentence, the parenthetical reference associated with a particular quote should be placed as close to the quotation as possible without interrupting the flow of the sentence.
If a paragraph includes several quotations from a single source, a single parenthetical reference may be placed at the end of the paragraph. Page numbers should be included for each quotation organized by placement in the paragraph. In the following example, the first quotation from Smith appeared on page 43 of the text. The second quotation used in the paragraph came from page 12.
Example: (Smith 43, 12)
If the author is included more than once on the Works Cited page, the following form should be used. Note that the format of the title on the Works Cited sheet should be mirrored in the parenthetical reference (i.e., if the title is underlined on the Works Cited page, then the title fragment should be underlined in the parenthetical reference).
General Form: (Author Last, "Title Fragment" Page #) or (Author Last, Title Fragment Page #)
Examples: (Smith, "Who Moved" 42) or (Smith, Big Changes 172)
The following are examples of parenthetical citations for text with more than one author:
(Brown and Sullivan 42)
(Brown, Sullivan, and Grayson 158)
(Brown, et al. 38)
If there is no author, a title fragment should be used to make a connection between the use of the source and the citation for the source on the Works Cited page.
General Form: ("Title Fragment" Page #) or (Title Fragment Page #)
Examples: ("Library Links" 13) or (Building a Bookshelf 42)
For other considerations related to MLA parenthetical citations, see the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers, 6th ed. (pages 238-60).
APA: Parenthetical In-Text Citations
To cite the use of a source in the text of an essay, APA advocates two methods: parenthetical citation and attribution within the essay's content. Parenthetical references should be included immediately after the quotation marks used in direct quotations or immediately after the use of the source, even if these means including the parenthetical reference in the middle of the sentence. The following is the general form for parenthetical citations in APA style:
Parenthetical Citation: (Author Last Name, Year of Publication)
Example: (Smith, 1988)
To make the citation of the source less distracting, the APA also suggests mentioning the author in the essay's content so that only the year of publication and page number may be required in the parenthetical reference.
Attribution in text: Author Last Name (Year of Publication) has argued this point.
Example: Smith (1988) has argued this point.
Page numbers are not required in APA in-text citation. However, it is highly suggested that these be included. To include references to a specific part of the text, add the page number or chapter number after the year.
Examples: Smith (1988, p. 244) has written that... or Smith (1988, chap. 5) has written that...
When a work has two authors, both names should be cited every time the reference is required. Use an ampersand (&) to separate the names of authors. If a text has been authored by more than five individuals, the full listing of authors is not required in the first reference or any subsequent in-text references.
First mention of the reference: Johnson, Smith, and Brown (1999) agree that...
Subsequent mention: Johnson et al. (1999) agree that...
If a group or corporation is the author, the full name of the group or corporation should be included in place of an author's name. If an organization has a recognizable abbreviation, this may be used in subsequent references.
First mention of the reference: (American Medical Association, 2002)
Subsequent mention: (AMA, 2002)
If no author is given for a specific text, use the first couple of word of the title in place of the author's last name. Title fragments should be formatted using the same punctuation as titles on the References page.
Examples of attribution in the text:
The recent publication Plagiarism and You (2002) offers some explanation...
In "Five Ways to Protect Yourself" (2000) one can find...
Examples of parenthetical attribution: (Plagiarism and You, 2002) or ("Five Ways to Protect Yourself," 2000)
When no date is given for the publication of a text (as is the case with many websites), include the abbreviation "n.d." in place of the year of publication.
For other considerations related to in-text referencing using the APA format, see the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 5th ed. (pages 207-14).
Chicago: Notes Style
In Chicago's Documentation Style 1, also known as notes form, the use of research sources is indicated in the text with a numerical subscript that corresponds to an entry at the end of the paper. These are called endnotes. Although footnotes (or notes at the bottom of the page) are sometimes required, endnotes have become the predominant form of notes citations.
When using endnotes to indicate the use of research sources, writers must also include a bibliography at the end of the essay. The note and the bibliographic entry include almost identical information but in a different format.
As the formats for notes are contingent on the format of the source for which the note is written, examples of note formats are included with the bibliographic examples available through the Citing Sources at the End of a Paper link. The B: entry would be included in the Bibliography at the end of the paper, while the N: entry gives examples to be used in footnotes or endnotes.
For further information on note format or other issues related to citing sources using the Chicago style, see The Chicago Manual of Style, 16th ed.
Chicago: Author/Date Style
Documentation 2, also called the Author-Date style, requires the use of parenthetical references in the text of the essay as well as a list of References.
Parenthetical references should be placed at the end of the sentence, before the period, when a resource has been used. If the sentence is either long enough or complex enough so that the cited portion of the sentence is not obvious, the parenthetical reference may instead be inserted immediately after the use of information from the source. Page numbers should be included whenever possible.
General Form: (Author Last Name Year of Publication, Page #)
Example: (Smith 1992, 142)
The following examples illustrate parenthetical reference formats for works with more than one author.
(Smith and Johnson 1998, 14)
(Smith, Johnson, and White 2001, 42)
(Smith et al. 1998, 203)
(National Alliance for Social Consideration 1932, 11)
When organizations or corporate authors are the author of a text, the name of the organization may be shortened to its most basic title. Abbreviations for the organization are not encouraged.
In the Chicago style, daily newspapers are rarely included in a list of References. Instead, attribution may be given to information from a daily newspaper in a parenthetical reference.
General Form: (Newspaper Name, Day Month Year of Publication, Section and Page #)
Examples: (San Antonio Express-News, 2 June 2005, B2)
(New York Times, 2 June 2005, A2)
(Durant Daily Democrat, 2 June 2005, 3)
The Chicago style guide does not offer examples for creating parenthetical references when there is no given author. Standard practice has been to include the title of the work in place of the author. The title should be formatted in the same manner as the formatting in the References list entry.
(Plagiarism and You 2002, 142)
("Five Ways to Protect Yourself" 2000, 33)
Electronic sources commonly lack a date of publication, as do other sources. When there is no date of publication listed for a source, include the abbreviation "n.d." in place of the date.
(Statistics for Water Rights n.d.)
For further information on citing sources using the Chicago style, see The Chicago Manual of Style, 16th ed.
If the author's name is mentioned in the text, use a parenthetical reference to show the year of publication at the end of the sentence. Example:
...Welch contends that this is not the case (1991).
If the author's name is not mentioned in the text, it should be included with the year of publication within parentheses. Example:
...but it has been argued that this was not the case (Welch 1991).
Page numbers should be included within parentheses after the year of publication. These are separated by a colon and no spaces. Example:
...but it has been argued that this was not the case (Welch 1991:136).
The following forms should be used for multiple authors:
A recent study confirmed her belief (Johnson and Smith 1995:34).
This was reinforced by recent research on the topic (Johnson, Smith, and Marcus 1999)
If a text has more than three authors, the term "et al." with no additional punctuation marks may be used after the first author listed in the publication credits.
This was not accurate according to a recent study (Johnson et al. 2003).
If multiple sources are cited for the same statement, the author and publication year should be distinguished from other texts with a colon. Cited texts should be arranged by author name or by date; arrangement should be consistent throughout the paper. Example:
Some studies have refuted these arguments (Benson 1993; Nguyen 1999; Brown and Goggans 2000).
For additional information on in-text citation using the ASA style, see the American Sociological Association Style Guide, Third ed., pp. 45-47.
In the Turabian citation style, writers may use one of two forms in citing their resources: endnotes or author/date parenthetical references. Writers using the Turabian style may use the Chicago formats for both endnotes as references and for parenthetical references. Refer to Kate L. Turabian's A Manual for Writers, 7th ed., pp. 143-145 (notes style) and pp. 217-220 (author-date style) for more information.
RefWorks is also capable of creating in-text citations. You may utilize the "Help" options available in RefWorksor visit the library's help desk to learn how to format in-text citations using RefWorks.
If you have questions about citing your use of a source within the text of your writing, please consult the print version of the citation style manuals. You may also set up a research appointment with a librarian to learn how to accurately and appropriate cite your sources.