Jagdish Chandra Bose was born in 1858 in Mymensingh (now Bangladesh). He had his education at Kolkata, Cambridge and London. He studied physical science in St.Xavier's College, Kolkata, but he graduated in the natural science in England.
Then Bose joined Presidency College at Kolkata, as professor of physics. Most of his important physical and biological experiments were carried out at the Presidency College laboratory.
Among Bose's findings, which won him world wide acclaim were (i) Plants, like human beings, possess the power of response; (ii) a plant swings abnormally like a drunkard, if treated with an alcoholic substance, and it becomes normal when the
cause is removed; (iii) the roots are not the sole media for procuring food for plants; (iv) plants have nerves, and they, too, feel pain when hurt; and (v) plant cells expand and contract like the heart in men and animals.
Bose was not only a Biologist but also a Physicist. He can rightly be called the inventor of wireless telegraphy. In 1896, Guglielmo Marconi secured his first patent on wireless telegraphy. But one year before that, Bose had first demonstrated its functioning in public, in 1895. He was the first in the world to fabricate the device that generated microwaves of very short wave length. But his invention was not internationally recognized as the inventor of wireless telegraphy.
Bose had also invented several sensitive instruments. His 'Crescigraph' is an instrument used to measure the rate of growth of plant.
Bose was elected Fellow of the Royal Society in 1920, after London University awarded him the D.Sc.degree (without requiring his presence for an examination) on his thesis entitled on the Determination of the wavelength of Electrical Radiation by Diffraction of the wavelength of Electrical Diffraction Grating. He was offered Knighthood in England.
Bose founded in Kolkata the 'Bose Institute' in 1917. He passed away in 1937.
Sir Jagadish Chandra Bose, Jagadish also spelled Jagadis, (born November 30, 1858, Mymensingh, Bengal, India (now in Bangladesh)—died November 23, 1937, Giridih, Bihar), Indian plant physiologist and physicist whose invention of highly sensitive instruments for the detection of minute responses by living organisms to external stimuli enabled him to anticipate the parallelism between animal and plant tissues noted by later biophysicists. Bose’s experiments on the quasi-optical properties of very short radio waves (1895) led him to make improvements on the coherer, an early form of radio detector, which have contributed to the development of solid-state physics.
After earning a degree from the University of Cambridge (1884), Bose served as professor of physical science (1885–1915) at Presidency College, Calcutta (now Kolkata), which he left to found and direct (1917–37) the Bose Research Institute (now Bose Institute) in Calcutta. To facilitate his research, he constructed automatic recorders capable of registering extremely slight movements; these instruments produced some striking results, such as Bose’s demonstration of an apparent power of feeling in plants, exemplified by the quivering of injured plants. His books include Response in the Living and Non-Living (1902) and The Nervous Mechanism of Plants (1926).