During the past decade, critical thinking has received increasing recognition in the marketing education literature. However, much of the extant literature emphasizes techniques tied to implementing critical thinking approaches, while questions exist regarding the processes by which students are influenced through participation in critical thinking pedagogies. This study merges attitudes, norms, and self-identity literature as a means of addressing the question of how students come to view themselves as critical thinkers. Specifically, the authors hypothesize that attitude strength should moderate the influence of attitudes on normative beliefs. Normative beliefs, in turn, are posited to mediate the influence of the Attitude × Attitude Strength interaction on student self-identity as a critical thinker. Thus, students with strong and positive attitudes regarding critical thinking will have strong normative beliefs associated with the skill, and these beliefs, in turn, will affect self-identity as a critical thinker. Results, based on a sample of students participating in critical thinking—oriented classes, support these hypotheses. Findings hold implications for academics and future researchers attempting to understand how to effectively leverage critical thinking pedagogies in marketing classes.
Intellectual Empathyprovides a step-by-step method for facilitating discussions of socially divisive issues. Maureen Linker, a philosophy professor at the University of Michigan-Dearborn, developedIntellectual Empathyafter more than a decade of teaching critical thinking in metropolitan Detroit, one of the most racially and economically divided urban areas, at the crossroads of one of the Midwest's largest Muslim communities. The skills acquired throughIntellectual Empathyhave proven to be significant for students who pursue careers in education, social work, law, business, and medicine.
Now, Linker shows educators, activists, business managers, community leaders-anyone working toward fruitful dialogues about social differences-how potentially transformative conversations break down and how they can be repaired. Starting from Socrates's injunction knowthyself, Linker explains why interrogating our own beliefs is essential. In contrast to traditional approaches in logic that devalue emotion, Linker acknowledges the affective aspects of reasoning and how emotion is embedded in our understanding of self and other. Using examples from classroom dialogues, online comment forums, news media, and diversity training workshops, readers learn to recognize logical fallacies and critically, yet empathically, assess their own social biases, as well as the structural inequalities that perpetuate social injustice and divide us from each other.
Subjects: Political Science, Sociology