This article is about the disease. For the virus, see rubella virus.
|Synonyms||German measles, three-day-measles|
|A rash due to rubella on a child's back. The area affected is similar to that of measles but the rash is less intensely red.|
|Symptoms||Rash, swollen lymph nodes, fever, sore throat, feeling tired|
|Complications||Testicular swelling, inflammation of nerves, congenital rubella syndrome, miscarriage|
|Usual onset||2 weeks after exposure|
|Causes||Rubella virus (spread through the air)|
|Diagnostic method||Finding the virus in the blood, throat, or urine, antibody tests|
|Frequency||Common in many areas|
[edit on Wikidata]
Rubella, also known as German measles or three-day measles, is an infection caused by the rubella virus. This disease is often mild with half of people not realizing that they are infected. A rash may start around two weeks after exposure and last for three days. It usually starts on the face and spreads to the rest of the body. The rash is sometimes itchy and is not as bright as that of measles.Swollen lymph nodes are common and may last a few weeks. A fever, sore throat, and fatigue may also occur. In adults joint pain is common. Complications may include bleeding problems, testicular swelling, and inflammation of nerves. Infection during early pregnancy may result in a child born with congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) or miscarriage. Symptoms of CRS include problems with the eyes such as cataracts, ears such as deafness, heart, and brain. Problems are rare after the 20th week of pregnancy.
Rubella is usually spread through the air via coughs of people who are infected. People are infectious during the week before and after the appearance of the rash. Babies with CRS may spread the virus for more than a year. Only humans are infected. Insects do not spread the disease. Once recovered, people are immune to future infections. Testing is available that can verify immunity. Diagnosis is confirmed by finding the virus in the blood, throat, or urine. Testing the blood for antibodies may also be useful.
Rubella is preventable with the rubella vaccine with a single dose being more than 95% effective. Often it is given in combination with the measles vaccine and mumps vaccine, known as the MMR vaccine. When some, but less than 80% of the people are vaccinated, more women might make it to childbearing age without developing immunity by infection or vaccination and CRS rates could increase. Once infected there is no specific treatment.
Rubella is a common infection in many areas of the world. Each year about 100,000 cases of congenital rubella syndrome occur. Rates of disease have decreased in many areas as a result of vaccination. There are ongoing efforts to eliminate the disease globally. In April 2015 the World Health Organization declared the Americas free of rubella transmission. The name "rubella" is from Latin and means little red. It was first described as a separate disease by German physicians in 1814 resulting in the name "German measles."
Signs and symptoms
Rubella has symptoms that are similar to those of flu. However, the primary symptom of rubella virus infection is the appearance of a rash (exanthem) on the face which spreads to the trunk and limbs and usually fades after three days (that is why it is often referred to as three-day measles). The facial rash usually clears as it spreads to other parts of the body. Other symptoms include low grade fever, swollen glands (sub-occipital and posterior cervical lymphadenopathy), joint pains, headache, and conjunctivitis.
The swollen glands or lymph nodes can persist for up to a week and the fever rarely rises above 38 °C (100.4 °F). The rash of German measles is typically pink or light red. The rash causes itching and often lasts for about three days. The rash disappears after a few days with no staining or peeling of the skin. When the rash clears up, the skin might shed in very small flakes where the rash covered it. Forchheimer's sign occurs in 20% of cases, and is characterized by small, red papules on the area of the soft palate.
Rubella can affect anyone of any age and is generally a mild disease, rare in infants or those over the age of 40. The older the person is the more severe the symptoms are likely to be. Up to 60% of older girls or women experience joint pain or arthritic type symptoms with rubella.
In children rubella normally causes symptoms which last two days and include:
- Rash beginning on the face which spreads to the rest of the body.
- Low fever of less than 38.3 °C (101 °F).
- Posterior cervical lymphadenopathy.
In older children and adults additional symptoms may be present including:
- Swollen glands
- Coryza (cold-like symptoms)
- Aching joints (especially in young women)
Rare problems can occur including the following:
- Brain inflammation
- Ear infection 
Coryza in rubella may convert to pneumonia, either direct viral pneumonia or secondary bacterial pneumonia, and bronchitis (either viral bronchitis or secondary bacterial bronchitis).
Congenital rubella syndrome
Main article: Congenital rubella syndrome
Rubella can cause congenital rubella syndrome in the newborn. The syndrome (CRS) follows intrauterine infection by the rubella virus and comprises cardiac, cerebral, ophthalmic and auditory defects. It may also cause prematurity, low birth weight, and neonatal thrombocytopenia, anemia and hepatitis. The risk of major defects or organogenesis is highest for infection in the first trimester. CRS is the main reason a vaccine for rubella was developed.
Many mothers who contract rubella within the first critical trimester either have a miscarriage or a stillborn baby. If the fetus survives the infection, it can be born with severe heart disorders (patent ductus arteriosus being the most common), blindness, deafness, or other life-threatening organ disorders. The skin manifestations are called "blueberry muffin lesions". For these reasons, rubella is included on the TORCH complex of perinatal infections.
About 100,000 cases of this condition occur each year.
Main article: Rubella virus
The disease is caused by rubella virus, a togavirus that is enveloped and has a single-stranded RNA genome. The virus is transmitted by the respiratory route and replicates in the nasopharynx and lymph nodes. The virus is found in the blood 5 to 7 days after infection and spreads throughout the body. The virus has teratogenic properties and is capable of crossing the placenta and infecting the fetus where it stops cells from developing or destroys them. During this incubation period, the patient is contagious typically for about one week before he/she develops a rash and for about one week thereafter.
Increased susceptibility to infection might be inherited as there is some indication that HLA-A1 or factors surrounding A1 on extended haplotypes are involved in virus infection or non-resolution of the disease.
Rubella virus specific IgM antibodies are present in people recently infected by rubella virus, but these antibodies can persist for over a year, and a positive test result needs to be interpreted with caution. The presence of these antibodies along with, or a short time after, the characteristic rash confirms the diagnosis.
Further information: MMR vaccine
Rubella infections are prevented by active immunisation programs using live attenuated virus vaccines. Two live attenuated virus vaccines, RA 27/3 and Cendehill strains, were effective in the prevention of adult disease. However their use in prepubertal females did not produce a significant fall in the overall incidence rate of CRS in the UK. Reductions were only achieved by immunisation of all children.
The vaccine is now usually given as part of the MMR vaccine. The WHO recommends the first dose be given at 12 to 18 months of age with a second dose at 36 months. Pregnant women are usually tested for immunity to rubella early on. Women found to be susceptible are not vaccinated until after the baby is born because the vaccine contains live virus.
The immunisation program has been quite successful. Cuba declared the disease eliminated in the 1990s, and in 2004 the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention announced that both the congenital and acquired forms of rubella had been eliminated from the United States.
Screening for rubella susceptibility by history of vaccination or by serology is recommended in the United States for all women of childbearing age at their first preconception counseling visit to reduce incidence of congenital rubella syndrome (CRS). It is recommended that all susceptible non-pregnant women of childbearing age should be offered rubella vaccination. Due to concerns about possible teratogenicity, use of MMR vaccine is not recommended during pregnancy. Instead, susceptible pregnant women should be vaccinated as soon as possible in the postpartum period.
There is no specific treatment for rubella; however, management is a matter of responding to symptoms to diminish discomfort. Treatment of newborn babies is focused on management of the complications. Congenital heart defects and cataracts can be corrected by direct surgery.
Management for ocular congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) is similar to that for age-related macular degeneration, including counseling, regular monitoring, and the provision of low vision devices, if required.
Rubella infection of children and adults is usually mild, self-limiting and often asymptomatic. The prognosis in children born with CRS is poor.
Rubella occurs worldwide. The virus tends to peak during the spring in countries with temperate climates. Before the vaccine against rubella was introduced in 1969, widespread outbreaks usually occurred every 6–9 years in the United States and 3–5 years in Europe, mostly affecting children in the 5-9 year old age group. Since the introduction of vaccine, occurrences have become rare in those countries with high uptake rates.
Vaccination has interrupted the transmission of rubella in the Americas: no endemic case has been observed since February 2009. Vaccination is still strongly recommended as the virus could be reintroduced from other continents should vaccination rates in the Americas drop. During the epidemic in the U.S. between 1962–1965, rubella virus infections during pregnancy were estimated to have caused 30,000 stillbirths and 20,000 children to be born impaired or disabled as a result of CRS. Universal immunisation producing a high level of herd immunity is important in the control of epidemics of rubella.
In the UK, there remains a large population of men susceptible to rubella who have not been vaccinated. Outbreaks of rubella occurred amongst many young men in the UK in 1993 and in 1996 the infection was transmitted to pregnant women, many of whom were immigrants and were susceptible. Outbreaks still arise, usually in developing countries where the vaccine is not as accessible.
In Japan, 15,000 cases of rubella and 43 cases of congenital rubella syndrome were reported to the National Epidemiological Surveillance of Infectious Diseases between October 15, 2012, and March 2, 2014 during the 2012–13 rubella outbreak in Japan. They mainly occurred in men of ages 31 to 51 and young adults aged 24–34.
See also: Eradication of infectious diseases § Rubella
Rubella was first described in the mid-eighteenth century. Friedrich Hoffmann made the first clinical description of rubella in 1740, which was confirmed by de Bergen in 1752 and Orlow in 1758.
In 1814, George de Maton first suggested that it be considered a disease distinct from both measles and scarlet fever. All these physicians were German, and the disease was known as Rötheln (contemporary German Röteln), hence the common name of "German measles". Henry Veale, an English Royal Artillery surgeon, described an outbreak in India. He coined the name "rubella" (from the Latin word, meaning "little red") in 1866.
It was formally recognised as an individual entity in 1881, at the International Congress of Medicine in London. In 1914, Alfred Fabian Hess theorised that rubella was caused by a virus, based on work with monkeys. In 1938, Hiro and Tosaka confirmed this by passing the disease to children using filtered nasal washings from acute cases.
In 1940, there was a widespread epidemic of rubella in Australia. Subsequently, ophthalmologist Norman McAllister Gregg found 78 cases of congenital cataracts in infants and 68 of them were born to mothers who had caught rubella in early pregnancy. Gregg published an account, Congenital Cataract Following German Measles in the Mother, in 1941. He described a variety of problems now known as congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) and noticed that the earlier the mother was infected, the worse the damage was. Since no vaccine was yet available, some popular magazines promoted the idea of "German measles parties" for infected children to spread the disease to other children (especially girls) to immunize them for life and protect them from later catching the disease when pregnant. The virus was isolated in tissue culture in 1962 by two separate groups led by physicians Parkman and Weller.
There was a pandemic of rubella between 1962 and 1965, starting in Europe and spreading to the United States. In the years 1964–65, the United States had an estimated 12.5 million rubella cases. This led to 11,000 miscarriages or therapeutic abortions and 20,000 cases of congenital rubella syndrome. Of these, 2,100 died as neonates, 12,000 were deaf, 3,580 were blind, and 1,800 were mentally retarded. In New York alone, CRS affected 1% of all births.
In 1969 a live attenuated virus vaccine was licensed. In the early 1970s, a triple vaccine containing attenuated measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) viruses was introduced. By 2006, confirmed cases in the Americas had dropped below 3000 a year. However, a 2007 outbreak in Argentina, Brazil, and Chile pushed the cases to 13,000 that year.
On January 22, 2014, the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Pan American Health Organization declared and certified Colombia free of rubella and became the first Latin American country to eliminate the disease within its borders. On April 29, 2015, the Americas became the first WHO region to officially eradicate the disease. The last non-imported cases occurred in 2009 in Argentina and Brazil. Pan-American Health Organization director remarked "The fight against rubella has taken more than 15 years, but it has paid off with what I believe will be one of the most important pan-American public health achievements of the 21st Century." The declaration was made after 165 million health records and genetically confirming that all recent cases were caused by known imported strains of the virus. Rubella is still common in some regions of the world and Susan E. Reef, team lead for rubella at the C.D.C.’s global immunization division, who joined in the announcement, said there was no chance it would be eradicated worldwide before 2020. Rubella is the third disease to be eliminated from the western hemisphere with vaccination after smallpox and polio.
The name rubella is sometimes confused with rubeola, an alternative name for measles in English-speaking countries; the diseases are unrelated. In some other European languages, like Spanish, rubella and rubeola are synonyms, and rubeola is not an alternative name for measles. Thus, in Spanish, "rubeola" refers to rubella and "sarampión" refers to measles.
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Shreya Ghoshal (born 12 March 1984) is an Indian playback singer. She has received four National Film Awards, six Filmfare Awards including five for Best Female Playback Singer, nine Filmfare Awards South, three Kerala State Film Awards, two Tamil Nadu State Film Awards and many other awards. She has recorded songs for film music and albums in various Indian languages and has established herself as a leading playback singer of Indian cinema.
Ghoshal aspired to become a playback singer from an early age. At the age of four, she started learning music. At the age of six, she started her formal training in classical music. At the age of sixteen, she was noticed by film-maker Sanjay Leela Bhansali when she entered and won the television singing reality show Sa Re Ga Ma Pa. Following that, she made her Bollywood playback singing debut with Bhansali's romantic drama Devdas (2002) for which she received a National Film Award, a Filmfare Award for Best Female Playback Singer and Filmfare RD Burman Award for New Music Talent.
Apart from playback singing, Ghoshal has appeared as a judge on several television reality shows and she also appears in music videos. She performs in musical concerts around the world. She has been honored by United States state of Ohio, where Gov. Ted Strickland declared 26 June 2010 as "Shreya Ghoshal Day". In April 2013, she was honoured in London by the selected members of House of Commons of the United Kingdom. She also featured five times in the Forbes list of the top 100 celebrities from India. In 2017, Ghoshal became the first Indian singer to have her wax figurene in Madame Tussauds Museum.
Early and personal life
Shreya Ghoshal was born on 12 March 1984 to a BengaliHindu family in Baharampur, Murshidabad district, West Bengal.[A] She grew up in Rawatbhata, a small town near Kota in Rajasthan. Her father, Bishwajit Ghoshal is an electrical engineer and works for the Nuclear Power Corporation of India, and her mother, Sarmistha Ghoshal, is a literature post-graduate. She has a younger brother, Soumyadeep Ghoshal. At the age of four, she started learning music.
Shreya Ghoshal completed her schooling up to eighth grade at the Atomic Energy Central School in Rawatbhata. In 1995, she won the All India Light Vocal Music Competition, New Delhi, organised by Sangam Kala Group, in Light Vocal group in sub-junior level. In 1997, when her father was transferred to the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, she was relocated to Mumbai, with her family and studied at the Atomic Energy Central School in Anushakti Nagar. She joined the Atomic Energy Junior College to study science. She withdrew from the junior college and enrolled at the SIES College of Arts, Science, and Commerce in Mumbai, where she took up arts with English as her major.
Her mother used to help her in her rehearsals and she accompanied her on the Tanpura and started practicing mostly Bengali songs. At the age of six, Ghoshal started with her formal training in classical music. She acquired training from Late Kalyanji Bhai for 18 months and continued her classical music training with Late Mukta Bhide in Mumbai. Her first stage performance was made at a club's annual function. When she turned six, she started her lessons in Hindustani classical music. In 2000, at the age of sixteen, she participated and won the television music reality show Sa Re Ga Ma (now Sa Re Ga Ma Pa) on the channel Zee TV.
On 5 February 2015, Ghoshal married her childhood friend Shiladitya Mukhopadhyaya in a traditional Bengali ceremony. Before getting married, Ghoshal dated him for almost 10 years. According to Ghoshal, apart from being a singer she loves to travel and read books but it's cooking that has a healing effect on her.
Her first ever recorded song was "Ganraj Rangi Nachato" which is a cover version of a Marathi song originally sung by Lata Mangeshkar. Her first studio album was Bendhechhi Beena, which was released on 1 January 1998, with 14 tracks. Some of her earlier albums are O Tota Pakhi Re, Ekti Katha (1999), and Mukhor Porag (2000). Ghoshal recorded Bengali studio album Rupasi Raate (2002). Ghoshal recorded devotional songs in albums like Banomali Re (2002), and later, Krishna Bina Ache Ke (2007).
Bollywood debut (2002–04)
Ghoshal caught the attention of director Sanjay Leela Bhansali when she participated in the 75th children's special episode of Sa Re Ga Ma. Bhansali's mother was watching the show and during Ghoshal's performance, she called him to watch her performance, after which he decided to give her a chance in his next film. According to Bhansali, Ghoshal's voice had the innocence needed for the character of Paro in Devdas (2002).
In 2000, Bhansali and music director Ismail Darbar offered her the opportunity to be the voice of Paro, the lead female character of Devdas, who was portrayed by Aishwarya Rai. Ghoshal sang five songs in the film, namely, "Silsila Ye Chaahat Ka", "Bairi Piya", "Chalak Chalak", "Morey Piya", and "Dola Re Dola", with established singers such as Kavita Krishnamurthy, Udit Narayan, Vinod Rathod, KK, and Jaspinder Narula. She was sixteen when she recorded the first song for the film, "Bairi Piya" with Udit Narayan. Her Higher Secondary Examinations were nearing that time and she would take her books and notebooks to the studio in order to study during downtime. "Bairi Piya" was an instant success and topped the charts.The film garnered her first Filmfare Award for Best Female Playback Singer for "Dola Re" (shared with Kavita Krishnamurthy) and a National Film Award for Best Female Playback Singer for "Bairi Piya". Her performance also won her the Filmfare RD Burman Award for New Music Talent.
|“||I remember I was asked to rehearse the song once before finally recording it. I simply closed my eyes and sang without a break. When I opened my eyes, I noticed a lot of excitement and chaos outside the recording room. Then Sanjayji told me I had sung the song so well that they had recorded it at one go.||”|
|— Ghoshal sharing her experience of recording "Bairi Piya"|
She was an immediate success and was called by various regional film industries for recording songs in her voice. Ghoshal was next heard in Darbar-composed Desh Devi, where she performed three tracks for the film.
After rendering traditional semi-classical songs for her previous ventures, Ghoshal performed two seductive numbers for M. M. Kreem's Jism, which prevented her from being stereotyped. According to Ghoshal, "Jaadu Hai Nasha Hai" and "Chalo Tumko Lekar Chale" from the film "made everyone look at [her] in a new light", opening the doors to a "versatile image". She was awarded with another Filmfare trophy for Best Female Playback Singer for the song "Jaadu Hai Nasha Hai". She thereupon worked with Anu Malik, where she performed the female version of "Aye Meri Zindagi", "Seena Pada" and "Aai Jo Teri Yaad", along with the bhajan-styled "Har Taraf". In spite of providing vocals for "Har Taraf", Ghoshal also made her first on-screen appearance in Saaya. Apart from Inteha, Ghoshal provided vocals for Malik in two other films, Munna Bhai M.B.B.S. and LOC Kargil, where she recorded the song "Chann Chann" for the former and "Pyaar Bhara Geet" for the latter, along with Sonu Nigam. Besides, Ghoshal made her first collaboration with Shankar–Ehsaan–Loy by performing the female version of the song "Tu Hi Bata Zindagi". Calling her sing "effortless" in the song, The Hindu mentioned that she was "able to impart the required emotions" for the song.
In 2004, Ghoshal contributed to the soundtrack album of Thoda Tum Badlo Thoda Hum by performing four tracks, which were labelled with an "average" tag by Joginder Tuteja from Bollywood Hungama. However, he was "impressed" with Ghoshal's rendition from her songs in Khakee, where he affirmed that Ghoshal's voice suits Aishwarya Rai to the "core" and she "lends credibility to the entire song" in "Wada Raha". Besides, the two duets with Nigam; "Dil Dooba" and "Youn Hi Tum Mujhse", were equally favored by music critics. Further complimenting her vocals in the song "Hum Tumko Nigahon Mein" and "Soniye" from Garv, Tuteja asserted that Ghoshal's "vocals have started to suit the current breed of actresses better and better with each passing day". Apart from Dil Bechara Pyaar Ka Maara, Ghoshal worked with Nikhil–Vinay in other projects, by recording "Betab Dil Hai" from Phir Milenge, and "Woh Ho Tum" from Muskaan.
During the time, Nadeem–Shravan composed Tumsa Nahin Dekha: A Love Story was considered to be the biggest album for Ghoshal, as she sang all the numbers with an exception of one song. She performed a wide variety of songs—from a jazzy number to soft romantic tunes—in the album. According to Ghoshal, the album allowed her to "experiment with the entire range" of her "singing capabilities". Besides, Ghoshal lent her voice for Malik, where she sang "Tumhe Jo Maine Dekha" and "Gori Gori" for Main Hoon Na apart from the title track—which received the maximum praise from critics.Mid Day affirmed that Ghoshal provided "perfect accompaniment" for the track, while Rediff.com was "impressed with her rendition". The year marks her first collaboration with Rajesh Roshan and Daboo Malik by singing the melodious track for the former composed "Saansein Ghulne Lagi" from Aetbaar and performing the track "Shikdum" from Dhoom, for the latter.
Ghoshal was bestowed with her second National Film Award for her rendition of "Dheere Jalna" in Paheli. As claimed by Daily News and Analysis, the song "treads the fine balance between the classical and popular genre of Hindi film music". Barring the song "Dheere Jalna", Ghoshal was heard in two other tracks "Kangna Re" and "Minnat Kare", composed by M.M. Kreem. She provided vocals for Kreem in one of his another compositions: "Guzar Na Jaye" from Rog. With the film Parineeta, she made her first collaboration with Shantanu Moitra. She performed four tracks from the film alongside Nigam, which includes "Piyu Bole", "Kasto Mazza" and "Soona Man Ka Aangan". Thereupon, the duo worked for the soundtrack album of Yahaan, performing a soulful track "Naam Adaa Likhna", "Urzu Urzu Durkut" and a Punjabi track "Mele Chaliyan". Ghoshal's work in both the films was widely acclaimed, subsequently being nominated for the Filmfare Awards with the song "Piyu Bole". Reportedly, Ghoshal was selected to sing the female rendition of the track after being auditioned by many other artistes. In an interview, Moitra stated; "Pradeep wanted a little trill of laughter in the middle of the song and she did it effortlessly".
Along with "Piyu Bole", Ghoshal received another Filmfare nomination for her rendition of the song "Agar Tum Mil Jao" from Zeher. The song along with "Jaane Ja Jaane Ja" from the same film was acclaimed by music critics. Apart from providing supporting vocals for Himesh Reshammiya's "Aashiq Banaya Aapne", Ghoshal's voice had been used in some of his other compositions released during the year. However, while reviewing Malik-composed "Pehle Se", Bollywood Hungama wrote: "Ghoshal sings in a mature manner and does well once again to prove herself as a dependable playback singer". Similar sentiments were echoed for the song "Bolo To" from Shabd which was composed by Vishal–Shekhar.
2006 marks Ghoshal's first collaboration with Ravindra Jain in film Vivah, where she performed three duets with Narayan titled "Mujhe Haq Hai", "Do Anjaane Ajnabi" and "Milan Abhi Aadha Adhura Hai". For the album, she also recorded "Hamari Shaadi Mein" with Babul Supriyo and two sisters conversation song "O Jiji" with Pamela Jain, along with a bhajan performed with Jain. Ghoshal's "obsessive" vocals were appraised in Roop Kumar Rathod's composition, "So Jaoon Main" from Woh Lamhe. Despite the length, the version was particularly acclaimed from the album. During the year, Ghoshal performed her first ever duet with Sunidhi Chauhan—though they have contributed in multi-singer songs together—with the Salim–Sulaiman's composition, "Imaan Ka Asar" from Dor. In spite of providing backing vocals for Lage Raho Munna Bhai's "Bande Mein Tha Dum", Ghoshal and Nigam performed a romantic duet titled "Pal Pal", a composition by Moitra. For the song, she received a Best Female Playback Singer nomination at the 52nd Filmfare Awards. She was next heard with Vishal Bhardwaj in the song "O Saathi Re", which exudes the feeling of intimacy and deep love. Ghoshal's low pitch rendition in the song was positively noted by critics.
In 2006, Ghoshal sang "Pyaar Ki Ek Kahani", "Koi Tumsa Nahin" and "Chori Chori Chupke Chupke" for Rajesh Roshan-composed Krrish which were also favored by the critics. Reviewing the album, Bollywood Hungama wrote: "Ghoshal is extremely competent and justifies her continued presence in the big league". They also mentioned that Ghoshal has reached to a similar level of Alka Yagnik in terms of "class, quality and style".
In 2007, Ghoshal recorded a thumri in the mujra style for Khoya Khoya Chand. Titled "Chale Aao Saiyan" and composed by Moitra, the song was particularly praised for Ghoshal's "different" vocal structure. She even lent her voice for two other songs for the album; "Sakhi Piya" and "Thirak Thirak". She reunited with Moitra for Laaga Chunari Mein Daag, where she performed "Hum To Aise Hain" along with Chauhan which also had Swanand Kirkire and Pranab Biswas lending supporting vocals.Raja Sen found "Kachchi Kaliyaan" song from the film less appealing with its "bad remix background" though praised Ghoshal, Chauhan, KK and Nigam for giving the song "the vim it requires". Apart from providing background alaap in Monty Sharma's composition "Masha-Allah", Ghoshal was heard in the classically oriented numbers "Jaan-E-Jaan" and "Sawar Gayi", included in the album Saawariya. She also recorded her first track in a Sanjay Leela Bhansali's composition, "Thode Badmaash" for the same album, providing a "feminine quality" to her "temperate nuances".
During the same year, Ghoshal sang the peppy rain song, "Barso Re" for Mani Ratnam's Guru, a composition by A.R. Rahman. A Review from Oneindia praised Ghoshal's rendition of the song and opined that it was a different incarnation of her in comparison to her previous records. The song won her third Filmfare Award for Best Female Playback Singer. The same year, she came up with the song "Yeh Ishq Haaye" from Jab We Met, composed by Pritam which was successful in earning her a third National Film Award for Best Female Playback Singer.
The duo also worked with the classical track "Mere Dholna" for Bhool Bhulaiyaa (2007), performed beside M. G. Sreekumar, which was acclaimed with special mention to the taan towards the "climax of the song". Ghoshal also lent her voice for Vishal–Shekhar with few of his compositions and was particularly praised for the theme song of Ta Ra Rum Pum along with the romantic song "Main Agar Kahoon" and the dance song "Dhoom Taana" from film Om Shanti Om, where some critics compared her singing style of the latter with S. Janaki. In the year, Ghoshal worked with Ilaiyaraaja for the album Cheeni Kum.
After singing for films such as U Me Aur Hum, Sirf, Ghatothkach, Dashavatar, Mere Baap Pehle Aap, De Taali, Haal-e-Dil, Thoda Pyaar Thoda Magic and Kismat Konnection, Ghoshal recorded another hit song for Singh Is Kinng (2008), titled "Teri Ore", composed by Pritam Chakraborty. It received mixed reviews from music critics. The song earned her a fourth Filmfare Award for Best Female Playback Singer and overall fifth Filmfare Award. After that, she lent her voice for films like Bachna Ae Haseeno, God Tussi Great Ho, Welcome to Sajjanpur, Kidnap, Karzzzz, Ek Vivaah... Aisa Bhi, Dostana, Yuvvraaj and others. She won her fourth National award for singing "Pherari Mon" for the Bengali filmAntaheen (2008), and "Jeev Rangla" for the Marathi filmJogwa (2008).
She debuted in the Tamil cinema through the song "Yen Chellam" in Vasanthabalan's film Album (2002), and she received success after singing "Munbe Vaa" from Sillunu Oru Kaadhal under composer A. R. Rahman. She received her first Tamil Nadu State Film Award. She made her Telugu debut for music director Mani Sharma in Okkadu (2003). She made her debut in Kannada cinema with the song "Krishna nee begane baaro" in the movie Paris Pranaya (2003). Ghoshal debuted in Malayalam cinema through a studio album of composer Alphons Joseph and later gave voice to his song "Vida Parayukayano" from Big B (2007). In 2010, Ghoshal sang for the English independent film When Harry Tries to Marry. In the same year, Ghoshal rendered her voice for a song "Aadha Ishq" from film Band Baaja Baaraat which composed by Salim-Sulaiman. Satyajit of Glamsham stated, "Shreya Ghoshal's feminine vocal textures have always been reliable in ballads".
In 2011, Ghoshal recorded hit duet song "Saibo" in film Shor in the City with Tochi Raina, a composition by Sachin-Jigar. Satyajit from Glamsham reported, "Sweetly toned and mesmerized with mellifluous flows of Shreya Ghoshal singing, the first outing "Saibo" is a smoothening surprise that extols the feel of romanticism to perfection". Later that year, Ghoshal sang the duet "Teri Meri" in film Bodyguard with Rahat Fateh Ali Khan. A Himesh Reshamiya composition, the song received positive to mixed reviews.NDTV labelled the song as "moderately paced and average". Ghoshal later collaborated with Bappi Lahiri in the duet "Ooh La La" from film The Dirty Picture. Abid from Glamsham stated that Shreya Ghoshal manage to keep up the fun tempo with an improvised and highly entertaining and excellent renditions. Ghoshal received further two nominations that year at Filmfare Awards for songs "Saibo" and "Teri Meri.
In 2012, Ghoshal rendered her voice for popular item song, "Chikni Chameli" from film Agneepath. The song was composed by Ajay-Atul and was a remake of their own Marathi song "Kombdi Palali" from film Jatra. Joginder Tuteja of Bollywood Hungama stated, "A special word for Shreya Ghoshal too who changes her singing style in a big way and comes up trumps. She gets the kind of rustic flavour that was the need of the hour and is superb in her rendition." Ghoshal received her one of the two Filmfare nominations of the year for the song. Later, she revealed that she "wasn’t very comfortable" singing the song because of its vulgar lyrics and requested the makers to change few words in it. The same year, she performed four songs, all composed by Sajid–Wajid for film Rowdy Rathore which received mixed reviews from critics. For the duet song "Dhadang Dhang Dhang" performed by Ghoshal alongside Sajid, Devesh Sharma of Filmfare remarked, "Shreya Ghoshal puts the ’90s ka tadka' in her rendition" and for lullaby song "Chandaniya" he said, "Shreya Ghoshal sounds uncannily like Alka Yagnik and proves that she is a singer for all occasions". Joginder Tuteja from Bollywood Hungama stated in relation to "Chandaniya", "Shreya Ghoshal can fit into any mode as per the demand of the situation". The song "Tera Ishq Bada Teekha" received mixed reviews from music critics. Ghoshal then lent her voice in a Four-part harmony song, "Radha" from Student of the Year alongside Udit Narayan, Vishal Dadlani and Shekhar Ravjiani which garnered critical appreciation. In the same year, she again collaborated with A.R. Rahman for a duet song "Saans" from film Jab Tak Hai Jaan along with Mohit Chauhan. The song received positive to mixed reviews by critics. At the poll conducted by Indiatimes, the song Saans won the title of "Most Romantic Song of the year 2012". The song earned Ghoshal second of her two Filmfare nominations of the year.
In early 2013, Ghoshal sang two duet songs "Naino Mein Sapna" and "Taki O Taki" for film Himmatwala. The songs were originally composed by Bappi Lahri and re-created by Sajid–Wajid. Both songs received positive reviews from music critics. For "Naino Mein Sapna", critics of NDTV mentioned, "Ghoshal sounds tailormade for the track" and for "Taki Taki" they remarked, "Ghoshal proves yet again her mettle in the industry". For "Naino Mein Sapna", Shivi from Komoi stated, "Shreya Ghoshal replace Lata Mangeshkar and do a decent job". Ghoshal sang the female version of Sunn Raha Hai in Aashiqui 2 composed by Ankit Tiwari and written by Sandeep Nath. She garnered critical praise over Ankit Tiwari who sang the male version of the song. Apart from rendering vocals for A.R. Rahman composed "Banarasiya" in Raanjhanaa, Ghoshal lent her voice for duet "God, Allah aur Bhagwan" in Krrish 3 alongside Sonu Nigam. Though the former song was met with largely positive reviews, the latter was poorly received. Ghoshal next performed two tracks in Goliyon Ki Raasleela Ram-Leela namely "Dhoop" and "Nagada Sang Dhol" both composed by the director of film, Sanjay Leela Bhansali. She earned positive to mixed response for former and mostly positive reviews for the latter. Mohar Basu of Koimoi stated in regards to "Dhoop", "Shreya Ghoshal's voice croons hauntingly and this song evokes a range of deep emotions. Passionately sung and flatteringly themed, this song makes evident the reason why Ghoshal can be compared to music veterans of the industry." Ghoshal received two Filmfare nominations for songs "Sunn Raha Hai" and "Nagada Sang Dhol" that year.
In 2014, Ghoshal recorded three songs for film PK namely the solo "Nanga Punga Dost" and duets "Chaar Kadam" and "Love is a Waste of Time" with Shaan and Sonu Nigam respectively. Later in the same year, she sang the duet "Manwa Laage" with Arijit Singh for film Happy New Year composed by Vishal-Shekhar duo and written by Irshad Kamil. Surabhi Redkar of Koimoi stated, "Shreya Ghoshal's voice brings out the mush in you." After its release, "Manwa Laage" crossed one million views within 21 hours and two millions views in 48 hours on YouTube worldwide. Ghoshal got another nomination at Filmfare Awards for the song.
2015 started with Ghoshal's another collaboration with A.R. Rahman in Tamil film I. Besides rendering vocals for original Tamil duet "Pookkalae Sattru Oyivedungal" alongside Haricharan, she also dubbed its Hindi version "Tu Chale" alongside Arijit Singh and Telugu version "Poolane Kunukeyamantaa" alongside Haricharan. The original Tamil version song "Pookkalae Sattru Oyivedungal" was met with positive reviews by critics, with most critics praising the vocals of Ghoshal. Nicy V.P. from International Business Times commented on Tamil version, "Haricharan's crystal clear voice, Shreya's Hindustani driven singing lead to a chart-buster, here. With regards to Shreya Ghoshal, we have to dig deep the dictionary to come up with some new adjectives to praise her singing." Later that year, Ghoshal sang the female version of song "Hasi" from film Hamari Adhuri Kahani composed by Ami Mishra which got critical precedence over male version sung by Ami Mishra himself. Devesh Sharma from Filmfare remarked, "The female version of Hasi, sung by Shreya Ghoshal, works better than the male version, sung by guest composer Ami Mishra himself. Ghoshal elevates it with her superb effort and the softer arrangement works better for it overall." Ghoshal also performed the female version of the song "Gaaye Jaa" for the film Brothers composed by Ajay-Atul which received positive reviews from music critics. The Times of India stated, "Shreya Ghoshal scores brownie points for her rendition". Glamsham praised Ghoshal's vocals labelling them "sugary sweet and superbly controlled". Bollywood Life commented, "Shreya Ghoshal amazes the listener by making this situational song such a great listen and just for her lovely voice, one has to put this song on a loop" The same year saw Ghoshal again collaborating with Sanjay Leela Bhansali in Bajirao Mastani.
She performed three songs in the film, namely "Mohe Rang Do Laal", "Deewani Mastani" and "Pinga", all of which met with widespread critical acclaim. She also dubbed these songs in Tamil and Telugu versions of the film's soundtrack. The qawwali interlude song "Deewani Mastani" in the film fetched her sixth Filmfare Award, fifth for Best female playback singer.
In early 2016, Ghoshal provided vocals for duet "Tere Bin" from film Wazir alongside Sonu Nigam. Composed by Shantanu Moitra and written by Vidhu Vinod Chopra, the song opened to positive reviews by critics. Labelling the song as "a beautiful start for the film", critics from Bollywood Hungama commented, "Though the sound of song is quite classical for a film which is set in the current times, one can well expect that it would fit in well into the narrative." Ghoshal was next heard in song "Tum Bin Jiya" in film Sanam Re, composed by Jeet Ganguly. It was a recreation of a song with same title from 2001 film Tum Bin sung by K.S. Chitra and composed by Nikhil-Vinay. The song received positive to negative reviews. Ghoshal sang the songs "Mere Aankhon Se Nikle Aansoo" and "Ishq Ki Baarish" written by Sameer and composed by Nadeem Saifi in the film Ishq Forever for which critics compared Ghoshal singing style to veteran singer Alka Yagnik. For the song "Mere Aankhon Se Nikle Aansoo", The Times of India commented, "Shreya create magic in [the song], which is straight from the heart. Ghoshal provided vocals for song "Aatach Baya Ka Baavarla" in Marathi film Sairat composed by Ajay-Atul which was well received by critics. Ghoshal's collaboration with Ankit Tiwari in song "Jab Tum Hote Ho" from film Rustom was critically well received. Devesh Sharma of Filmfare labelled the song "sombre" and praised use of Ghoshal's "melodious" voice in the song. Ghoshal was next heard in Tamil film Devi in which she rendered her vocals for song "Rang Rang Rangoli". Ghoshal also dubbed Hindi version of the song titled "Ranga Re" as the film was released along with Tamil in Hindi and Telugu as well with Telugu version "Rang Rang Rangare" being sung by Swetha Mohan. India West praised the Hindi version by quoting, "Ghoshal proves that she can tread Sunidhi Chauhan terrain effortlessly in parts of the song, and her strong vocals once again put up a strong case for playback singers (females)". The Tamil version of song also opened to positive reviews. In the same year, Ghoshal done an album called Gulzar In Conversation With Tagore, which consists of seven songs composed by Shantanu Moitra.
In early 2017, Ghoshal rendered "Aashiq Surrender Hua" duet along with co-singer and composer Amaal Mallik from the film Badrinath Ki Dulhania. the song in itself was much appreciated for its quirky lyrics which were penned down by lyricist: Shabbir Ahmed. "Aashiq Surrender Hua" was one of the rare songs in which Ghoshal was heard in a lower register than what she usually sings in. As Swetha Ramakrishnan from Firstpost reiterated, "The best thing about the song is Shreya Ghoshal singing in a lower pitch; something one rarely gets to hear." In regards to the singers, Gaurang Chauhan from Bollywood Life stated, "Both are a unique choice for such a song and they nail it." Ghoshal was next heard in "Rozana" from the film Naam Shabana for which Ghoshal's vocals were specifically met with critically positive reviews. Shriram Iyengar from Cinestaan mentioned, "Ghoshal's voice brings a mesmerising touch to the song, with a perfect balance of happiness and contentment.". Praising Ghoshal's vocals in "Rozana", India West commented, "To say that she makes the best out of this increasingly rare occasion in film music is superfluous." Apart from rendering vocals for A R Rahman composed 'Do Dilon Ke' duet along with Hariharan in the Hindi dubbed version of the film: Viceroy's House Ghoshal also lent her voice for duet 'Hans Mat Pagli 'in Toilet: Ek Prem Katha alongside Sonu Nigam. Both songs were critically acclaimed. Joginder Tuteja from Bollywood Hungama stated that "The combination of Sonu-Shreya takes the song to a different altogether and worthy of repeat hear."
In 2017, Ghoshal also sang "Thodi Der" duet with co-singer and music director Farhan Saeed for the film Half Girlfriend. She received a Filmfare Award for Best Female Playback Singer nomination for the song. Komoi stated, "Ghoshal’s voice as sweet as honey mesmerizes the listener in Thodi Der". Glamsham reported, "Ghoshal is simply fantastic and [song] can be put on repeat mode". In the same year, Ghoshal sang two songs in fifth episode of Mixtape, a web series launched by T-Series for which she received positive response.
Concerts and other activities
Main article: List of Shreya Ghoshal concerts
Ghoshal performs in musical concerts around the world. In 2013, she went to Australia and New Zealand and gave performances at the Brisbane Convention Center, Dallas Brooks Center in Melbourne, the Sydney Opera House and Vodafone Events Centre in Auckland. In the same year, she performed at the Sharjah Cricket Association Stadium in United Arab Emirates. The same year, she paid her respects to the casualties of an excessive rainfall in Mauritius with a concert at the Swami Vivekananda International Convention Centre in Pailles. Along with Hrishikesh Ranade, she also made a stage performance during the 18th annual day celebration of Airports Authority of India. She made London tours where she performed twice in Royal Albert Hall in 2013 and 2014. On the first tour in 2013, she also celebrate 100 years of Bollywood by performing many of the old Bollywood hits songs.
In 2006, along with Sonu Nigam, Sunidhi Chauhan and Shiamak Davar, Ghoshal performed the theme song of 2010 Commonwealth Games at its closing ceremony, as an invitation to everyone to the following Commonwealth Games in Delhi. The same year, she along with Nigam, recorded the title track "Haath Se Haath Milaa" for the album put together by the BBC World Service Trust as part of an AIDS awareness campaign, where profits garnered through the album, was donated to HIV charities. In 2011, she became the brand ambassador for Joyalukkas jewellery.
In 2016, Ghoshal performed a charity event to support a 17 years old patient of Acute lymphoblastic leukemia. In the same year, Ghoshal performed her concert in Sydney Olympic Park. In 2017, she performed concerts in the US with a forty member live Symphony band at the Fox Theatre in Detroit.
One of Ghoshal's earliest musical memories is listening to her mother, Sarmistha Ghoshal, sing classical Bengali songs at clubs. As a very young child, she was introduced to music by her mother, whom she refers as her first "guru". She states that her mother is her best critic.
Ghoshal has acknowledged Lata Mangeshkar, Asha Bhosle, K S Chithra, Geeta Dutt, Mohammed Rafi, Kishore Kumar, Ilaiyaraaja and Mukesh as her inspirations. She has also named Jagjit Singh as her inspiration to perform songs in the genre of Ghazal.
Ghoshal possesses a soprano vocal range of two octaves to C#6. In spite of her frequent high pitched rendition, Ghoshal has performed songs with a lower vocal range. Her voice has been described as "sweet" with "slight huskiness". In an interview, Ghoshal noted that her voice has transformed from the "girlish tenor" of the earlier days to a more matured texture. Her voice is characterized in the media for being most suitable for higher-pitched renditions, although some critics have said that her voice tends to screech when she reaches a higher note of scale. Similarly, in the book Confession of a Coward — an Indian Adventure, it was stated that Ghoshal's high-pitched vocals are interesting and impressive, but "certainly take some time getting used to it". Ghoshal has voiced against correcting pitch with Auto-Tune. About her singing and rehearsing style, she has said, "I have a special way of writing the lyrics when it is dictated to me. No matter what the language of the song, even if it is Bengali, I write it in Hindi. I have certain notations and markings to indicate the way it should be pronounced. I feel the Devanagari script is the closest to the phonetics of the language. English letters are not very good for that purpose. Moreover, I listen carefully and try to grasp as much as possible when the lyrics are read to me".
What makes Ghoshal remarkable among her contemporaries, according to The Indian Express is, the "serenity in her voice" and the "enviable range". Further complimenting her versatile vocal range, they noted: "The honey-dipped inflection of [her voice], which once put in the recording studio, can turn into naughty, sensuous, serious, sad, comic and pure classical, depending on the requirement of the job". Naming her as the "most versatile singer of this generation", India West remarked the smoothness of her voice when flowing from "lower registers to higher notes". According to The Times of India, Ghoshal maintains the "touch of versatility" with her music by singing different style of songs from classical to pure commercial music. In 2003, Ghoshal admitted that she modulates her voice well, hence "none of the music directors have yet been able to label me".
Ghoshal took vocal lessons and did workshops with Kalyanji Virji Shah, where she learnt the technique about "throw of voice, straight notes, vibratos". She considers classical music training as an asset in playback since it "keeps one's voice fit and fresh". Music director Shekhar Ravjiani praised Ghoshal for her singing versatility. According to Sonu Nigam, the best quality about Ghoshal is that the expressions come perfectly along with mannerisms. Music director and singer M. Jayachandran praised Ghoshal by saying, "It is amazing how she writes down the lyrics in Hindi and then gives her signature nuanced expressions to Malayalam words". During her interviews, Ghoshal mentioned, "I cannot sing double meaning songs or the songs which have vulgar lyrics". Ghoshal's voice is similar to her contemporary singer Palak Muchal.
Impact and recognition
Ghoshal's work has been praised by music directors Ankit Tiwari,Jeet Gannguli, Ghoshal's contemporary singers Papon,Palak Muchal,Sukhwinder Singh,Bombay Jayashri,Javed Ali,Neha Kakkar,Richa Sharma, Pakistani singers Ghulam Ali,